5 min read

What Is Database Monitoring

We can’t let our databases fail. We need to have measures in place to guarantee that the crucial business data is not impacted. One way of doing that is real-time database monitoring which involves continuously observing, analyzing, and managing the performance and health of a database system. Let's see what that is and how to use it.
Published on
November 20, 2023
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Itay Braun
Adam Furmanek
Dev Rel
Metis Team
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In today’s world, we can’t let our databases fail. We need to have measures in place to guarantee that the crucial business data is not impacted. One way of doing that is real-time database monitoring which involves continuously observing, analyzing, and managing the performance and health of a database system. It encompasses tracking metrics like query response times, resource usage, security threats, and uptime to ensure optimal functionality and reliability. By employing SQL monitoring tools and practices, we can proactively address issues, maintain data integrity, and maximize the efficiency of their database infrastructure.

Database monitoring is crucial because it allows for the proactive identification of potential issues, ensuring optimal performance and availability of critical data. It helps in detecting anomalies (like slow queries), security threats (like brute force attacks or Denial of Service attacks), and performance bottlenecks, enabling timely intervention to prevent downtime and data loss. Ultimately, database monitoring is essential for maintaining the integrity, security, and efficiency of a database system, safeguarding against potential risks and disruptions.

Database monitoring significantly impacts businesses by ensuring uninterrupted access to crucial data, minimizing downtime, and maintaining optimal system performance. It helps prevent potential data breaches or loss, safeguarding sensitive information and preserving trust with customers. Additionally, efficient database monitoring supports informed decision-making, enabling businesses to optimize operations and enhance productivity.

The Importance of Database Monitoring

Database monitoring plays a critical role in ensuring consistent performance by continuously observing various metrics and aspects of the database system. It helps identify performance issues or bottlenecks in real time or before they escalate which allows for timely interventions, optimizations, and resource allocation adjustments. This helps us maintain a stable and consistent performance of the database system over time.

Database monitoring helps protect data integrity. By tracking values distribution, we can see when we introduce bugs in our applications that lead to lower data quality. Identifying these issues early is crucial, as typically it is very hard to fix them retroactively. Business data is the most important part of our business and we can’t let it degrade.

Another aspect is industry standards. Our applications need to comply with best practices and legal requirements. This involves using the right database management solutions, but also auditing our codebase to make sure that we meet the requirements. Standards may cover various aspects of the operations like personal information security (GDPR, CCPA), managing customer data (SOC 2), payments (PCI), health data (HIPAA), cybersecurity (NIST CSF), and many more.

Many factors that can result in lower database performance. See Debugging CPU Usage where we describe more of them in greater detail. Let us now see some key aspects of database monitoring.

Key Aspects of Database Monitoring

Database monitoring involves tracking, analyzing, and managing various aspects of a database system to ensure its performance, availability, and security. Key aspects of database monitoring include:

  1. Tracking Database Performance: Monitoring system performance, query execution times, and resource utilization (CPU, memory, disk I/O) to identify bottlenecks and optimize database performance.
  2. Logging Events and Tracking Availability: Ensuring that the database is accessible and responsive, minimizing downtime, and implementing failover and redundancy measures for high availability.
  3. Tracking Security Protocols and Checks: Monitoring for unauthorized access, data breaches, and other security threats, and implementing authentication, authorization, and encryption to protect data.
  4. Analyzing Query: Analyzing and optimizing SQL queries for efficiency and identifying poorly performing queries that impact overall database performance.
  5. Monitoring Backup and Recovery: Monitoring and verifying the success of database backups and implementing disaster recovery plans to minimize data loss in case of failures.
  6. Setting Up Alerting and Notification: Setting up alerts and notifications to promptly respond to issues, such as performance degradation or security breaches.
  7. Analyzing Trends: Analyzing historical data to identify patterns, forecast future resource needs, and plan for capacity scaling.
  8. Being Compliant: Ensuring that the database complies with regulatory and security standards, such as GDPR, HIPAA, or industry-specific requirements.
  9. Maintaining Good Documentation: Generating reports and documenting the database monitoring process, configurations, and incident responses for compliance and auditing purposes.

Let us delve into some of these aspects.

Tracking Database Performance

Database performance tracking involves monitoring and analyzing various aspects of a database system to ensure it operates efficiently and meets performance expectations. The main aspects of database performance tracking include:

  1. Query Execution: Monitoring the execution of SQL queries to identify slow-performing queries, long-running transactions, and potential bottlenecks in query processing.
  2. Resource Utilization: Tracking the usage of system resources, such as CPU, memory, and disk I/O, to ensure efficient allocation and avoid resource contention.
  3. Indexing: Assessing the effectiveness of database indexes and optimizing them to improve query performance. Removing unnecessary ones.
  4. Query Optimization: Analyzing and tuning SQL queries, query plans, and database schema design to enhance overall performance.
  5. Throughput: Measuring the rate at which the database processes transactions and queries to gauge its capacity to handle concurrent workloads.
  6. Locking and Blocking: Monitoring database locks and identifying potential blocking issues that may impact concurrency and performance.
  7. Cache Management: Managing database caches (e.g., buffer pool, query cache) to reduce disk I/O and improve data retrieval speed.
  8. Scalability: Assessing the database's ability to scale horizontally or vertically to accommodate growing workloads and user demands.
  9. Trend Analysis: Maintaining historical performance data to detect trends and patterns, which can help in capacity planning and performance optimization.

Focusing on these aspects lets us make sure that our databases are healthy as our business grows and we store more data.

Tracking Security Protocols and Checks

Database security protocols are robust measures designed to safeguard sensitive data, including personally identifiable information (PII), by detecting unusual activity and preventing unauthorized access; implementing them can be challenging due to the complexity of databases and evolving threats.

Attackers can impact our database in many ways. One type of attack is Denial of Service (DoS) which is a malicious attempt to disrupt the normal database behavior by overwhelming it with a flood of illegitimate queries. The goal is to make the database inaccessible to its intended users, causing a denial of service. Other types of attacks are targeted at security protocols and look for incorrect implementations of encryption, hashing, or network communication. Yet another type focuses on invalid configuration of Role Based Access Control (RBAC).

Some of these checks can be automated. For instance, we can track the number of unsuccessful authentication attempts and limit them based on the IP address. However, attackers always look for new methods to break in. Therefore, we need to have good anomaly detection solutions in place to identify new attacks as early as possible.

Logging Events and Tracking Availability

To gather information about database performance for analysis, logs and metrics play a crucial role. Logs and metrics provide valuable data that can be used to monitor, troubleshoot, and optimize database performance. Here's how they are used:

  • Error Logs: Database management systems (DBMS) maintain error logs that record any errors, warnings, or critical events. Analyzing error logs helps identify and address issues that can impact performance, such as database crashes, corruption, or connectivity problems.
  • Query Logs: Query logs track SQL queries executed against the database, including query text, execution time, and user information. Analyzing query logs can help identify slow queries, query patterns, and potential bottlenecks.
  • Audit Logs: Audit logs capture database activity, including login attempts, data access, and user actions. Analyzing audit logs is crucial for security and compliance.

It is also crucial to track the database availability. We can do that by monitoring uptime, heartbeat and ping tests, and by tracking failover metrics.

Monitoring Backup and Recovery 

Monitoring backups and regularly testing recovery are vital for data protection, business continuity, and risk mitigation. They ensure data safety, integrity, compliance, and optimized recovery procedures.

  • Regular Backups: Scheduled data snapshots to capture current information for data protection and recovery.
  • Recovery Tests: Periodic exercises to verify backup reliability and assess recovery procedures.
  • Protecting Backups: Safeguard backups from unauthorized access and disasters to ensure data security and availability.

Restoring a database from a backup can be time-consuming, highlighting the need for a recovery strategy that aligns with the service level agreement (SLA) to meet performance and availability expectations.

Selecting the Right Database Monitoring Tool

All database monitoring tools offer basic data collecting: operating system level metrics (CPU, Memory, IO reads and writes), general database activity, top queries, locks and indexes.

Modern database observability tools should offer built-in domain expertise to not only display data but also provide insightful interpretations of what is considered good or bad performance. This capability allows for more effective issue resolution by offering actionable recommendations within the tool itself.

Other important considerations are ease of use and scalability. Hard-to-use systems will make users ignore monitoring activities altogether and lead to longer resolution times.

The main database observability tools in the market include:

Metis - From Raw Data to Actionable Solutions

Metis stands out as a distinctive database monitoring tool that sets itself apart with its built-in domain knowledge. Unlike traditional tools, Metis not only gathers raw data but also leverages advanced rules crafted by database experts. This unique approach enables the platform to not just highlight issues but to offer remediation plans whenever feasible, streamlining the process of proactively addressing and resolving database performance challenges.

Metis covers all the monitoring needs by:

  • Monitoring host and infrastructure metrics.
  • Tracking database metrics around database-specific activities like transactions, partitioning, and indexing.
  • Analyzing schemas, extensions, and configurations.
  • Tracking deployments and ongoing changes.
  • Monitoring queries and providing performance insights.

Preventing production database-related problems is paramount, and the most effective approach involves a holistic lifecycle strategy that extends beyond monitoring post-incident. By incorporating proactive measures during development, potential issues can be detected and mitigated before reaching the production environment. This lifecycle approach involves thorough testing, performance profiling, and adherence to best practices, ensuring that databases are optimized and resilient from the outset, minimizing the likelihood of disruptions in the live production environment. Let us see some real-world examples:

  • A query with an 8-table join is encountering sluggish performance as revealed by the database monitoring tool, pointing to a full table scan on one table due to the absence of supporting indexes for the WHERE clause. The root cause lies in the missing indexes, compelling the database to perform a comprehensive scan during query execution. To resolve this, creating pertinent indexes on the implicated columns is imperative, illustrating the significance of proactive monitoring and optimization throughout the development lifecycle to preemptively address performance issues.
  • High volumes of temporary files in the database stem from queries sorting numerous rows, exposing inadequate memory allocation for sorting operations. To remedy this, the host configuration is optimized by adjusting the work_mem parameter, alleviating the reliance on temporary storage and improving system performance.
  • A surge in new row additions to the table results in query slowdown traced back to a bug in the insert process of a recent app version. The issue lies in inefficient data handling, necessitating a fix in the application's insert logic to restore optimal query performance. This underscores the crucial role of meticulous testing in preventing performance disruptions during application updates.
  • Inadequate database configuration, specifically the absence of automatic statistics creation, results in suboptimal query plans and persistent slow performance. Rectifying this issue requires configuring the database to generate statistics automatically, emphasizing the importance of proper configuration for efficient query optimization.
  • A cost issue arises as the server allocates excessive resources, leading to unnecessary expenses. To address this, the organization implements a cost-cutting measure by transitioning to less expensive machines, effectively reducing costs by 50%. This strategic adjustment aligns resource allocation with actual requirements, optimizing budget utilization without compromising operational efficiency.

Best Practices in Database Monitoring

Let us now see some best practices in database monitoring. First is conducting regular audits. They can provide a comprehensive overview of an organization's operations, helping to maintain compliance, improve security posture, and drive overall efficiency and trust in its processes and systems. We should audit our systems at least once a year. We should focus on compliance, performance, security, and quality of our solutions. Audits serve as a feedback loop, enabling organizations to learn from findings and implement corrective actions. This fosters a culture of continuous improvement and proactive risk management.

Another aspect is configuring alerts and notifications that drive our business and provide understanding. We already discussed that Monitoring Is Not Enough and we need understanding. We need to understand the characteristics of our business to configure alerts properly to not be swamped with too many alerts and false alarms. We should instead set the right thresholds to detect issues early but at the same time not spend too much time on manual maintenance.

We also need to implement access control properly. This includes verifying the identity of users or entities seeking access through methods like passwords, biometrics, two-factor authentication, or digital certificates. This also includes granting appropriate permissions and privileges to authenticated users based on their roles, responsibilities, or clearance levels. This ensures they can access only the resources necessary for their tasks. We should follow the least privilege principle and regularly review the assigned permissions to remove redundant ones.

The most important thing is to act proactively. We cannot wait for the issues to happen. We need to configure the tools to identify the problems before they degrade our systems. Metis can help us achieve that through its ability to Test Databases Before the Deployment. This way we can proactively find bad changes and stop them from reaching production.

Getting Started with Database Monitoring

To start with the database monitoring, we need to define our goals first. We need to identify metrics and areas that we need to track. We cover that in the discussion about Key Performance Indicators. We need to assess the metrics that represent our business value and can show us issues early.

Next, we need to build understanding and observability. As we already mentioned, Monitoring Needs Understanding and we need to build the end-to-end story explaining issues instead of stepping in for each false alarm and debugging manually.

Once we do that, we need to automate tools and mechanisms to Troubleshoot Efficiently. Our ultimate goal is to not do any manual work and minimize the maintenance time. Systems should prevent issues from happening, notify us as early as possible, and automate mundane tasks.

Metis can help us track the database’s health and has many features for performance tuning. It can prevent the bad code from reaching production, turn monitoring into observability, and automate troubleshooting. We need to understand which aspects we need the most at any given time and adjust them to our needs accordingly. We can choose from a wide range of monitoring options, including infrastructure metrics, schema migration analysis, database metrics, query insights, or configuration audits. Our end goal is to have the solution that does what we need automatically, so we can focus on running our business uninterrupted.


Database monitoring is crucial for keeping our business in shape. We need to track the database performance, availability, security, logs, metrics, alerts, notifications, and many other aspects. By configuring automated checks, we can minimize the manual work we need to do when issues occur, we can prevent problems from happening, and we can guarantee our business is not disrupted. We need to audit our solutions periodically to make sure we comply with industry standards and remove redundant permissions.

Metis is the ultimate solution covering all these aspects. It can turn monitoring into understanding and alleviate the pain of doing mundane maintenance by automating the checks and fixes.

In the modern world of microservices and databases, we need to act proactively and avoid issues. It’s a must for every company, no matter if it’s a startup or a Fortune 500 enterprise. Staying on top of the curve is essential for keeping the market advantage and growing our business.


What is database monitoring and why is it important?

Database monitoring involves continuously observing, analyzing, and managing the performance, health, and activity within a database system to ensure its optimal functionality, security, and reliability. It's essential because it enables proactive identification of issues, ensures efficient performance, and helps in maintaining data integrity, thereby minimizing downtime and potential disruptions to business operations.

How can I improve my database performance?

To enhance database performance, optimize queries by indexing frequently accessed columns and tables, reducing unnecessary data retrieval, and fine-tuning SQL queries. Additionally, consider allocating adequate hardware resources, such as memory and storage, and regularly maintain the database by updating statistics and performing routine maintenance tasks like index reorganization.

What features does the Metis Database Monitoring Tool offer?

Metis can help us track the database’s health and has many features for performance tuning. It can prevent the bad code from reaching production, turn monitoring into observability, and automate troubleshooting. It can turn monitoring into understanding and alleviate the pain of doing mundane maintenance by automating the checks and fixes. Metis covers query performance analysis, configuration checks, extension assessment, schema migration tracking, metrics monitoring, and query insights. It automates observability with the help of expert database knowledge and automated machine-learning solutions.

What are the best practices for SQL monitoring?

Regularly monitor query execution times, identify and optimize slow-performing queries, and track resource consumption such as CPU and memory usage to ensure efficient database performance. Utilize monitoring tools to set up alerts for anomalies, monitor database health, and proactively address potential bottlenecks or issues.

How does database performance impact overall business operations?

A well-performing database ensures swift access to critical data, enhancing operational efficiency, decision-making, and customer service. Poor database performance can lead to delays, downtimes, and inefficiencies, directly impacting productivity, customer satisfaction, and the overall pace of business operations.

What are the common challenges in database monitoring?

Managing scalability as data volume increases and diverse database environments, and ensuring comprehensive monitoring without impacting system performance or introducing significant overhead are common challenges in database monitoring. Additionally, correlating and analyzing data from various sources and maintaining real-time visibility across distributed or cloud-based databases pose monitoring complexities.

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